Gold, who trains in suburban Chicago, finished second in both the short program and free skate to Julia Lipnitskaia of Russia, who completed a stunning season with the world title.
The winning score was 7-plus points higher than the previous record at junior world's, byJapan's Mao Asada in 2005.
Only three senior women have higher scores this year, topped by Ashley Wagner's 192.41. Given that juniors do one fewer free skate element, Lipnitskaia's score is roughly the equal of Wagner's.
Lipnitskaia won all eight phases of her four major international junior competitions this season: junior worlds, Junior Grand Prix Final and two Junior Grand Prix meets.
In those events, she did not fall a single time and received negative grades of execution on just nine of the 72 elements she did, with no negatives at junior worlds.
Gold, 16, the reigning U.S. junior champion, was positive but for a slight mistake on her final jump in the free skate, alhough she doubled a planned triple loop.