For thousands of years, Istanbul has marked the point where East meets West -- a crossroads of civilizations. The city, so layered with rich history, was officially named "Istanbul" in 1923 with the founding of the modern Turkish Republic. Before that it was called "Constantinople." Around 330 A.D., as ancient Rome was falling, Emperor Constantine moved the capital to the less chaotic east. It was named Constantinople in his honor. Then, in 476, Rome and the Western Empire fell to invading barbarians.
The best look at ancient Constantinople is the Hagia Sophia, considered one of the greatest houses of worship in both the Christian and Muslim worlds (today it's a museum). Built in the sixth century, this church marked the pinnacle of the Byzantine glory days, boasting the biggest dome anywhere until Florence's cathedral was finished 900 years later. After the Byzantine Empire collapsed in the 15th century, the Ottomans turned it into a mosque, adding minarets and plastering over Christian mosaics. The prayer niche was shifted a bit off-center so it would point toward Mecca, rather than Jerusalem.
Facing the Hagia Sophia is the Blue Mosque. The area in between is the historic and touristic center of Istanbul, with blossoming trees, refreshing fountains, and a mix of strolling tourists and locals. On my last visit, I had to just sit on a bench and marvel at the almost Parisian elegance of the scene.
Architecturally, with its six minarets, the Blue Mosque rivaled the great mosque in Mecca -- the holiest in all Islam. Countless beautiful tiles fill the interior of this 17th-century mosque with exquisite floral and geometric motifs. As with all mosques, you park your shoes at the door and women cover their heads. If you don't have a scarf, loaners are at the door.
Services are segregated by gender: The main hall is reserved for men, while the women's section is in back. While some may view this as demeaning, Muslims see it as a practical matter. Women would rather have the option of performing the physical act of praying in private. One time, I visited in the evening, when once again it was the neighborhood mosque in action -- not a tourist in sight. A window was open for ventilation. I peeked through to find it was the ladies' prayer zone. I drew back, suddenly feeling a twinge of peeping-Tom guilt.
To get a full appreciation for today's Istanbul, you must leave the sightseeing core and explore the lively, more cosmopolitan neighborhoods. Istanbul's contemporary heart is Taksim Square, circled by endless traffic and highlighted by a statue commemorating the father of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The square marks the start of bustling Istiklal Street, lined with shops and eateries.
Istiklal offers an enticing parade of taste treats. Carts and hole-in-the-wall restaurants sell traditional foods like "simit" (sesame seed bread rings), "gozleme" (flatbread folded over cheese, potatoes, and other fillings), and "doner kebab" (meat grilled on a revolving spit and served in flatbread). Windows display towers of honey-soaked baklava and Turkish delight, a sweet gooey treat. At stalls, you can sample a local favorite: "kokorec" (sheep intestines, grilled and served with tomatoes, green peppers, and fresh herbs).
Strolling this mostly pedestrian boulevard from one thriving end to the other is a joyful ritual for me every time I'm in town. And it changes with each visit. As Turkey becomes more affluent and Western, the action here becomes more and more vibrant. This is today's Turkey: a melting pot of 20 or so different ethnic groups (Turk, Kurd, Armenian, Jew, Greek, etc.) and styles from the very traditional to the very latest. The city is a huge draw for visitors -- still a crossroads of humanity. And according to the Turkish proverb, every guest is a gift from God.
IF YOU VISIT...
SLEEPING: The Blue House offers smartly decorated rooms with bold color schemes, some of which overlook the Blue Mosque (splurge, http://www.bluehouse.com.tr). The Pera Tulip Hotel, near Istiklal Street in the New Town, offers modern, spacious rooms and occasional jazz performances by renowned Turkish musicians (moderate, http://www.peratulip.com).
EATING: Daruzziyafe, near the Mosque of Suleyman in the Old Town, serves traditional Ottoman-Turkish cuisine outside on a courtyard or inside a gorgeously decorated, multi-domed dining hall (Sifahane Sokak 4, http://www.daruzziyafe.com). Behind the Blue Mosque, Buhara 93 has simple and tasty food with flatbread right out of the wood-fired oven (Nakilbend Caddesi 15, tel. 0212/516-9657). On a terrace atop an Art Nouveau building on Istiklal Street, 360 offers a 360-degree view of the city (reservations required, Misirli Apartmani 163, http://www.360istanbul.com).
GETTING AROUND: The seemingly made-for-tourists tram connects the core of Istanbul's Old Town to the New District. Light rail and the Metro extend to the outer reaches of the city.
TOURIST INFORMATION: http://english.istanbul.gov.tr/.
(Rick Steves (http://www.ricksteves.com) writes European travel guidebooks and hosts travel shows on public television and public radio. Email him at firstname.lastname@example.org and follow his blog on Facebook.)
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