-- Performing a cost-benefit analysis on whether the relationship is worth saving.
-- Advising partners that they may be better off split.
Doherty advocates against couples therapy that takes a "values-neutral" approach that treats marriage and divorce as equally viable options or the "me"-oriented perspective that views relationships as platforms for people to be happy.
That's not to say people should stay miserable. But Doherty notes that there's a lot of psychological research showing the pursuit of happiness is itself self-defeating.
"Happiness is a byproduct of a life well-lived — of good relationships, of making a difference in the world," Doherty said.
Doherty didn't always practice what he now preaches. At the start of his career, he said, he took an individualistic approach to couples therapy, and if one partner didn't want to save the marriage, he didn't see how it was worth saving. About 30 percent of couples who seek counseling are these "mixed agenda" couples in which one person is "leaning out."
But while not all marriages can or should be salvaged, it's not the counselor's role to decide.
"I'm the last person to give up; I'm not the first person to give up," Doherty said.
People should be able to tell early on if the therapy is helpful. Within the first couple of sessions, each partner should feel that the therapist understands his or her point of view and is actively structuring the sessions, Doherty said. The relationship should be improving in five to eight sessions.
When done right, about 70 percent of couples therapy cases show positive change, according to a study last year in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.
When done wrong, it can make things worse, Gehart said.
In particular, going alone to individual counseling for marital problems increases the chance of divorce, research shows. That's because the client is telling only one side of the story to an empathetic therapist, so it becomes a gripe session about how unhappy the person is in the relationship and the absent partner starts to look like even more of a monster, exacerbating the couple's polarization, Gehart said.
That's not to say it's never appropriate to see an individual therapist for relationship problems. For example, if one partner's depression or commitment issues caused the discord, that person might benefit from individual counseling to work on those personal issues (though if the marital problems came before the depression, couples therapy is the way to go), Gehart said.
Still, it can be helpful to bring in the partner for a session or two.
Chuck, 60, who asked that his last name not be published, said poor counseling failed to rescue his marriage when he and his wife of nine years sought help for their unraveling intimacy.
Chuck, a former general contractor who lives in Kona, Hawaii, and who founded the website marriageguardian.com after seeing several family members get divorced, recalls that the counseling sessions focused too much on the past, the therapist gave no assignments between sessions and offered little direction of what they could do to make things better going forward. She also recommended they each get individual counseling, and he got the impression that she was more focused on working on their individual issues rather than the relationship.
"I think the counseling could have helped turn our situation around had it been done better," said Chuck, who got divorced 15 years ago. He still has regrets.
Seeking a couples therapist? Here are some resources and questions to help steer you to a good one.
-- Therapistlocator.net lists more than 15,000 marriage and family therapists who are members of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, which requires that they meet strict training and education requirements (a master's or doctoral degree plus at least two years of supervised clinical experience) and abide by the association's code of ethics.
-- If you wish to ensure you see a therapist who prioritizes commitment as the first option, you can search a registry of therapists who have agreed to a values statement at marriagefriendlytherapists.com.
-- Two widely recognized evidence-based approaches with research supporting their effectiveness include emotionally focused couples therapy, which helps couples shift their negative interactions to positives ones (iceeft.com for a list of certified therapists); and integrative behavioral couple therapy, which helps each partner accept the other as is (ibct.psych.ucla.edu has a list of trained counselors).
-- For couples on the road to divorce, the University of Minnesota's Couples on the Brink Project developed a new type of short-term therapy called "discernment counseling" to help them determine whether it's worth pursuing counseling or if it's better to let the marriage go. Go to cehd.umn.edu (search for "discernment counseling") for more information.