By Nancy Silverton and Carolynn Carreño, Special to the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
We've all been there. You're in a foreign country, or a favorite restaurant here in town, eating something that you just love and wondering, maybe even worrying, "How will I ever make this at home?"
That's exactly what happened to me a few summers ago, on a trip to Matera, in southern Italy, when I tasted the area's signature tomato-and-roasted-pepper-topped focaccia.
Until then, I was not a fan of focaccia. Those dense, cake-like squares of dry, flavorless bread, topped with rosemary if you were lucky, always seemed like a bad cliché -- something Italian American restaurants offered for their bread service as a way to appear authentic or simply to stick with a theme.
But I wanted to love focaccia. And when Joe Bastianich, who is a partner in Mozza and an Italian cuisine aficionado, asked me, "Why do you think nobody can make it here like it's made in Genoa and Puglia?" it wasn't long before I planned a trip to find out what he had in mind.
My optimism was justified that day in Matera. This one was moist and chewy, with an irregular hole structure, and an oily, crunchy underside. The bread was delicious -- slightly sour and yeasty -- and the toppings were just a bonus. It was like a cross between really good bread and really good pizza, and it was love at first bite. All I had to do was copy it.
Fortunately, figuring out how to re-create foods, or my versions of them anyway, is my strength. I did it with bread after tasting the loaves baked by Acme Bread Co.; I did it with Oreo cookies, my guilty pleasure; I did it with pizza, using Chris Bianco's crust as my inspiration; and now I've done it with focaccia.
A lot of home cooks believe there are professional secrets to how certain foods are made, but what I have learned is that more often than not, the steps or ingredients that make a dish special -- whether it's gelato, ragú Bolognese or, in this case, focaccia -- are far simpler than we might imagine.
These techniques are usually not carefully guarded secrets. Particularly when it comes to rustic Italian cuisine, it's often just a matter of finding out how something is traditionally done, and making adjustments from there. The advantage pros have over most home cooks is experience to draw on. To replicate my Italian experiences of focaccia, I was able to use my knowledge of bread-making.
But the other thing I did, which anyone can do, is observe very carefully.
My first clues came when I visited a panificio, or bakery, in Conversano, in Puglia. Although I wouldn't be completely sold on focaccia for a few more days, I liked what I had there enough to ask if I could peek in the kitchen, where I saw three things that would change my focaccia-making world.
First, I saw that the focaccia was baked in a round cake pan. Until then, I had always baked focaccia in large rectangular sheet pans. But after seeing it baked in cake pans, I realized that by working with such an unwieldy lump of dough, I had been mishandling it and thereby taking the air out of it, which makes for a dense bread. Using the smaller pans means working with dough in a more manageable size and shape -- a simple thing that seems obvious in hindsight.
I also saw that the baker was cutting the dough into portions, immediately putting each in the pan in which it was going to be baked, and then leaving it there to relax for its second rise. This eliminated the step of shaping the dough in the pan, which, again, would de-gas it and make for a denser bread.
The third and maybe most significant thing I saw was that the cake pans had olive oil in them, and not just enough to coat the pan, but a layer one-eighth to one-quarter inch deep. It was a substantial enough amount that the oil would be absorbed into the bottom crust, making it crunchy and flavorful.
Less than five minutes in this baker's kitchen, without asking a single question, and my focaccia had already improved exponentially.
When I got back to the Mozza kitchen and attempted to replicate that focaccia, I had only to work on the dough, which was the easy part. The more I experiment, the more I have come to see that all yeasted breads are more or less variations on a formula of flour, water, salt and yeast.
My pizza dough isn't far from my ciabattina, and this focaccia dough isn't far from my pizza dough. I start with that basic formula and because of my understanding of how bread and yeast works, I am able to tweak a few things to obtain whatever dough I want.
For this focaccia, I knew that I wanted it to be light with a lot of air holes, so I decided to start with the dough I use for a classic country white bread and go from there. There are different ways to achieve the air holes that I wanted, but the way I did it is to use a sourdough starter.
Those doughs begin with a sourdough starter, but since I assume that the average Angeleno does not keep a sourdough starter at home, for this article, I have created a quick overnight starter, called a sponge, or in Italian, a biga. This not only gives me the light bread with the irregular hole structure that I want, but it also imparts the mild fermented, sour flavor that I want for the focaccia.
I also knew that to get those holes, along with the moist, chewy texture that I wanted, I needed to have a very wet dough, one with a higher ratio of water to flour. The method that I have used over the years in working with a wet dough is to fold the dough in the middle of its proofing time. Folding the dough strengthens it and makes it easier to handle; without this step, such a dough will ferment too quickly and collapse.
After making the dough, the next step in making focaccia is to dimple. In the past, when I'd made focaccia, I had found that the dimples almost disappeared when it was baked.
But in Italy, I noticed that the ingredients are not laid on top of the dough, which would weigh it down, making the focaccia heavy and one-dimensional. Instead, the toppings are pushed deep into the dough, so the bread bakes up around them. Not only does this make the focaccia really interesting to look at, it also results in a bread that is light-textured.
At Mozza when we press the toppings into the dough, we push ever so slightly outward, toward the edge of the pan. In so doing, we are killing three birds with one stone: embedding the topping into the dough, dimpling the dough and encouraging the dough toward the edges of the pan.
Baking the focaccia turned out to be almost foolproof. Having it in the cake pan, and having the oil in the cake pan, already eliminates so many of the potential pitfalls of focaccia. And unlike when you are working with pizza or bread, it is not essential to have a super-hot oven. Though as with pizza, I found that baking it for a short time directly on the floor of the oven helps to create the crispy crunchy underside.
If you've never baked yeast breads before, this focaccia is a good, safe place to start -- first because you have a very high probability of beautiful, delicious results.
And second, because unlike a good loaf of bread, which you can now get in many grocery stores, unless you go to southern Italy, Genoa or Mozza2Go, there is only one way to get good focaccia, and that is to make it yourself.
For better or worse, there just aren't many things you can say that about anymore.
Nancy's basic focaccia dough
Total time: 3½ hours, plus 12 to 24 hours resting time for the sponge
Servings: Makes 2 (10-inch) focaccia dough rounds
Note: This recipe requires the use of a stand mixer, 2 (10- by 2-inch) round cake pans and a digital kitchen scale. Cake yeast is available at cooking and baking supply stores, as well as at select gourmet markets. The sponge must be started a day in advance.
Scant 1/8 packed teaspoon cake yeast or 1/16 teaspoon active dry yeast
Scant ½ cup (3.71 ounces) water
1/2 cup plus 3 tablespoons (3.04 ounces) bread flour
1. In a small mixing bowl (preferably plastic or ceramic), sprinkle the yeast over the water. Set the bowl aside for a few minutes to give the water time to absorb the yeast. Using a wooden spoon, stir in the bread flour until all of the ingredients are thoroughly combined.
2. Cover the bowl tightly with a sheet of plastic wrap, then tightly wrap another piece of plastic wrap or twine around the perimeter of the bowl to further seal the bowl.
3. Set the bowl aside at room temperature (ideally 68 to 70 degrees) until the sponge becomes bubbly and thick, like the consistency of wallpaper paste (thicker than a pancake batter but thinner than dough), 12 to 24 hours.
1 1/4 cups plus 2 tablespoons (11.04 ounces) water
1/2 cup plus scant 1 tablespoon (.39 ounce) olive oil, divided
2 packed tablespoons plus ¼ packed teaspoon (.39 ounce) fresh cake yeast or 1¾ teaspoons (.195 ounce) active dry yeast
2 tablespoons plus ¾ teaspoon (.56 ounce) rye flour
3 1/3 to 3 2/3 cups (15 to 16.45 ounces) bread flour, more if needed
1 tablespoon (.39 ounce) kosher salt
1. About 3½ hours before you are ready to bake the focaccia, place the water, scant tablespoon olive oil and sponge in the bowl of a stand mixer. Fit the mixer with a dough hook and, over low speed, add the yeast, rye flour and 15 ounces (3 1/3 cups) bread flour. Mix the ingredients over low speed for 2 minutes to thoroughly combine and form the dough.
2. With the mixer running, slowly add the salt, then increase the speed to medium. Continue mixing the dough until it is smooth and well-formed, and starts to pull away from the bowl, 6 to 8 minutes. Note that the dough will not pull so much that it "cleans" the bowl, but if the dough is too sticky and is not pulling away from the sides of the bowl at all, add a little more bread flour (a spoonful as needed at a time) to achieve the right consistency.
3. While the dough is mixing, lightly grease a bowl large enough to hold the dough when it doubles in size with olive oil. When the dough is ready, turn it out of the mixer into the oiled bowl. Wrap the dough tightly in plastic wrap and tightly wrap the perimeter of the bowl with kitchen twine or another piece of plastic wrap to further seal the bowl. Set the dough aside at room temperature (ideally 68 to 70 degrees) until doubled, about 1½ hours.
4. Dust the work surface lightly with flour and turn the dough out onto the floured surface. Acting as if the round has four sides, fold the edges of the dough toward the center. Turn the dough over and return it, folded side down, to the bowl. Cover the bowl again with plastic wrap and set it aside at room temperature until it has doubled in volume, 50 minutes to 1 hour. (The dough will be puffy and will feel alive, springy and resistant. It will not collapse under the touch of your fingertips.)
5. Pour ¼ cup olive oil into each of the cake pans, and tilt the pans so the oil coats the bottom evenly. Dust the work surface again lightly with flour and carefully turn the dough out onto the floured surface, taking care not to deflate the dough in the process. Divide the dough into two equal segments, each weighing approximately 18 ounces. Place the dough segments in the prepared cake pans and very gently pull the edges just to obtain a roughly round shape. Cover the pans with a clean dishcloth and set aside at room temperature until relaxed and spread to cover about half of the surface of the pans, about 30 minutes.
Olive and rosemary focaccia
Total time: 1½ hours, plus cooling time
Serves: Makes 1 focaccia; each focaccia yields 8 slices.
1 risen focaccia dough
2 ounces low-moisture mozzarella, cut into generous ½-inch cubes
40 pitted Ascolana olives (or another large pitted green olive)
Olive oil for brushing
20 tufts fresh rosemary
Scant ½ teaspoon Maldon sea salt, or another large flake sea salt
1. Heat the oven to 450 degrees. Remove the dishcloth from the top of one of the focaccias and, using your fingertips, gently tap down on the focaccia with about 5 light strokes to nudge it toward the edge of the pan; it still might not reach the edges, but don't worry.
2. One at a time, push the mozzarella cubes into the focaccia dough while simultaneously pushing outward to encourage the dough toward the edge of the pan, arranging the cubes evenly over the surface of the dough and pressing them so deep they are almost flush with its surface.
3. Do the same with the olives, arranging them in circular rows between the cheese cubes and pressing them down into the dough and slightly outward.
4. Brush the surface generously with olive oil, then press the rosemary tufts into the dough. Sprinkle over the sea salt. Set the focaccia aside until it is risen and puffed around the toppings, about 30 minutes.
5. Place the focaccia on the center rack of the oven and bake until crisp and golden-brown, 30 to 40 minutes. The focaccia should have risen almost to the top of the pan, and the cheese will be crisp and browned.
6. Move the pan to the bottom of the oven and continue to bake until the bottom crust of the focaccia is deep golden and crisp to the touch, about 5 minutes more.
7. Remove the pan from the oven and remove the focaccia from the pan to a wire rack (use a fork to gently lift and slide the focaccia out of the pan, careful of any hot oil that may still be at the bottom of the pan). Brush the surface of the focaccia once more with olive oil. Set the focaccia aside to cool slightly — or as long as you can resist it.
8. Transfer the focaccia to a cutting board. Halve the focaccia using a long knife, then cut one-half into 4 wedges (don't cut the other half until you are ready to eat it).
Each slice: 213 calories; 5 grams protein; 25 grams carbohydrates; 1 gram fiber; 10 grams fat; 2 grams saturated fat; 3 mg cholesterol; 0 sugar; 470 mg sodium.
Silverton is founder of La Brea Bakery and chef and co-owner of Mozza restaurant both in Los Angeles. She is co-author of "The Mozza Cookbook," to be published in September.
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