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Merlot: It's all in the micro-climates

Sprawling Columbia Valley boasts diverse conditions, distinctive merlot

Bill Daley

The Daley Question

January 13, 2010

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Telling Mike Januik that his merlot reminds you of cabernet sauvignon won't exactly break the Washington winemaker's heart. For Januik, who produces wine under his eponymous label and for Novelty Hill, believes what sets the merlots of the Columbia Valley region apart from others is their sense of place; these wines have a point of view.

"I think (consumers) think of merlots that are totally fruit forward, soft, without much mid-palate or finish," said Januik, who has been named one of the world's "masters of merlot" by Wine Enthusiast magazine. "Our wines have a lot of structure to them."

Back in the 1980s when the huge Columbia Valley American Viticultural Area (AVA) was created, some Washington winemakers thought merlot would be their trump card in the wine game. It has been to a degree, but Columbia Valley is home to a number of well-known grape varieties.

Gary Werner, communications director for the Washington Wine Commission, said merlot, riesling, chardonnay and cabernet sauvignon run "neck to neck" in the Columbia Valley.

"Given the size of the region and its various microclimates, we can grow just about anything," he said. "We're not ones to hang our hat on just one (variety)."

The Columbia Valley is not the soggy Washington state we all picture in our minds. This region lies east of the Cascade mountains and, in Werner's words, "is as dry as a bone." The sun shines 300 days a year, the annual rainfall is only 6 to 10 inches, and the temperatures can fluctuate from winter chill to summer scorcher.

Early winemakers there were worried about the temperature at first. They planted cold-hardy whites like riesling, recalled Coman Dinn, director of winemaking at Hogue Cellars.

"Merlot was chosen primarily because it is an earlier ripening grape compared to cabernet," he said.

Winemakers began to realize how different climate zones were in the valley. Certain south-facing hillsides were warmer than others, meaning winemakers could plant cabernet and other more cold-sensitive varieties there.

These micro-climates are the reason there are eight sub-AVAs in the Columbia Valley wine region; each has its own characteristics that favor certain grape varieties.

But back to merlot. In the book "Washington Wines and Wineries: The Essential Guide," author Paul Gregutt wrote that Washington merlots "start where most others leave off, with ripe flavors of sweet cherries, and then reach well beyond simple and fruity, adding plush, packed, textured flavors."

What makes these merlots so good?

"It's our northerly location and our limited growing season," said Dinn. "It doesn't warm up here until late April. Once it warms up, it warms up fast and the days grow rapidly longer and the grapes catch up. By Oct. 15 the season is over. … This keeps our crop load modest. You need a modest crop load to show character and intensity."

Dinn said irrigation is used to control vine growth and berry size. Want more intensity? Go with a smaller grape. And get sunlight in on the grape clusters, he added, to develop color and flavor.

Januik points to another factor.

"We are one of the few areas where we grow the vines on their own roots," Januik said. "Nothing is grafted. That more than anything has had a big impact."

Last, Werner said the small scale of Washington's wine production plays a role.

"We have to pursue quality," he said. "To make our mark, we have to let the fruit speak for itself and don't do a whole lot with it."

wdaley@tribune.com

Food pairings

Serve Columbia Valley merlot with grilled wild salmon, prime rib, roast duck, grilled New York strip steaks, roast beef.

Get a taste

2007 Cadaretta Merlot: A dark cherry color, with notes of chocolate and black cherry on the nose. Medium-bodied, with a deep cherry flavor, there's mouthwatering acidity and a nice tannic snap on the end. Good structure. Serve with roast leg of lamb, grilled steak. ✭✭✭ $35

2007 Seven Hills Merlot: The wine sports a plummy cherry color with a dash of cinnamon overlaying the fruit fragrance. Black cherry on the palate with touches of cocoa. Velvety mouthfeel. Serve with Chinese duck, roast pork loin with cherry glaze. ✭✭✭ $28

2006 Columbia Crest Reserve Merlot: A bright, cheerful wine with its berry flavor plushed with notes of cherry and black pepper. Very smooth. Serve with roast chicken, pate, macaroni and cheese. ✭✭ $24

You want that wine. But your store or area distributor may not choose to carry it. State law may prohibit you from ordering a wine online. What to do? Ask your wine retailer for a wine similar in flavor, style and price. Remember, too, prices vary.

By the numbers

11.4 million: Number of acres in the Columbia Valley AVA

36,400: Number of Columbia Valley acres in Washington planted with wine grapes

1984: Year the Columbia Valley AVA was created

8: Number of sub AVAs within Columbia Valley (see map).

Sources: USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service; Washington State Department of Agriculture Crop Mapping Services

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